Thursday, October 11, 2018

Study reveals that Cardiomyopathy mutation reduces heart's ability to vary pumping force.

Recently, the Researchers have found how a genetic mutation is associated to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) disrupts the heart's normal function. The study reveals that the mutation prevents the heart from increasing the amount of force it produces when it needs to pump additional blood around the body. 
Inherited genetic mutations can cause in the heart muscle which can abnormally thick and reduce the pumping of enough blood around the body. Studies have identified a mutation in the heart muscle protein troponin T that seem to pose a particularly high risk of sudden death in children and adults, despite it having only a mild thickening of the heart muscle wall. The mutation, known as F87L, alters a single amino acid in the central region of troponin.

Troponin complex component Troponin T which allows muscle fibers to contract in response to calcium released upon electrical stimulation. One of the significant features of cardiac muscle filaments is: they become more sensitive to calcium and hence contract more strongly, because they are stretched to longer lengths. Hence, when heart is filled with more blood, especially during carrying out physical activity, the muscle walls stretches and the heart contracts with high force to pump out extra blood. This phenomenon, which is known as the Frank-Starling mechanism is mainly due to Troponin action.

 A professor along with a graduate student carried out research and introduced an equivalent mutation in the cardiac troponin T gene of guinea pigs and analyzed how it can affects the guinea pigs cardiac muscle fibers ability to contract and produce force. They found that the mutation: F87L in troponin T destroys the length-dependent increase in calcium sensitivity. the same response to calcium was observed in short, unstretched muscle fibers expressing mutant troponin T showed just as longer, stretched fibers.

The data resulted demonstrate that the length-mediated increase in force is significantly decreased by this hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-associated mutation, which suggested that the mutation may direct muscle length-mediated increase in force production in the heart.. The effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism may have severe consequences for any individual as it decreases the heart's ability to increase output when it needs to pump additional blood around the body.

Monday, October 8, 2018

Association between Breastfeeding in reducing Hypertension risk

Women who breastfeed more children, and intended for the long period, are less likely to suffer from hypertension once they reach menopause. This is not true of obese women, however. Elevated blood pressure is the most prominent risk factor for disease and death. Proof from epidemiologic data has too revealed the advantageous effects of breastfeeding on the healthiness
of infants and their mothers. It has been reported that long-term breastfeeding is linked with reduced children's allergies, celiac disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Though, the effects of breastfeeding on maternal health have been not much studied compared with the effects on the children.

Numerous studies reliably found that lacking breastfeeding or early discontinuation was related with increased risks of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic disorder, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular diseases

On the other hand few studies have recognized a clear relationship between breastfeeding and hypertension. The study population comprised 3,119 non-smoking postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older was taken under consideration. More children breastfed and the longer period of breastfeeding was associated with minor risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women, and level of obesity and insulin resistance directed the breastfeeding-hypertension correlation. In particular, the highest quintile of number of children breastfed (5 to 11) appeared a 51% lessen risk of hypertension compared by the lowest quintile (0 to 1). The highest quintile of the duration of breastfeeding (96 to 324 months) showed a 45% lower risk of hypertension. 

Even though a broad variety of chronic diseases are not linked with breastfeeding, a few common mechanisms have been anticipated to lie behind the relationships between breastfeeding and these diseases. First, maternal metabolism (e.g., fat accumulation and insulin resistance) may be "reorganize" by breastfeeding subsequent to pregnancy, which diminishes the risk of obesity-related diseases. Second, oxytocin discharge stimulated by breastfeeding may be related to the decreased risk of these diseases.

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Friday, September 21, 2018

Predictors associated with augmented Left ventricular systolic function after pulmonary valve replacement

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) has been more than five decades since the first total TOF repair was performed in 1955. TOF accounts for almost 10% of all cases of congenital heart disease and is one of the main common cyanotic congenital heart disorder. Reparative surgery grants more than 85% of children born with TOF to continue into adulthood. Through the development of surgical procedures, perioperative encourage, and imaging modalities, long-term results have also considerably progressed in the previous 2 decades, but resultant  anomalies such as significant right ventricular (RV) enlargement, dyskinetic severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR), interventricular septal motion, and reduced RV systolic functioning are still there in more than half of these patients. It is now commonly acknowledged that pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with severe PR and concomitant RV volume overload can consequence in the preservation or recovery of RV function.
As such, much of the present literature on congenital heart disorder centers on the preservation and recovery of RV function in patients with repaired TOF (rTOF). Although LV volume and systolic function can fluctuate in adults at the late stage after TOF repair, PVR may have other benefits on LV systolic function. Researchers found that the only independent CMR indicator of postoperative improvement in LV systolic function is preoperative LV systolic dysfunction. This may be auxiliary to normalization of interventricular interactions after PVR, but the exact mechanisms responsible are not known yet. Other study is needed to further analyze the findings and determines accurate predictors associated with augmented LVEF following PVR.

Friday, September 7, 2018

How Sugar is more likely to cause high blood pressure and heart disease..??

Nutritional guidelines should highlight the role played by supplementary sugars, predominantly fructose, in the combat to control the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of premature death in the developed world. In addition to high blood pressure is its most important risk factor, accounting for almost 350,000 deaths in the US in 2009 and costing more than $50 billion US dollars every year. Dietary approaches to reduce high blood pressure have historically focused on cutting salt intake. But the possible benefits of this methodology "are debatable. This is for the reason that the average reductions in blood pressure accomplished by confining salt intake tend to be relatively little, and close by is some evidence to suggest that 3-6 g salt daily might be optimal for health, and to ingestion below 3 g may, in fact, be more dangerous. Most salt in the diet comes from processed foods, which also happen to be a loaded source of supplementary sugars.

"Sugar can be much more evocatively associated to blood pressure than sodium, as proposed by a greater amount of effect with dietary maneuvering. “Compelling evidence from basic science, population studies, and clinical trials ensnare sugars, and particularly the monosaccharide fructose, as playing a chief role in the growth of hypertension [high blood pressure]. "Moreover, evidence recommends that sugars in common, and fructose, in particular, may be a factor to generally cardiovascular hazard through a variety of components. High fructose corn syrup, which is the most frequently utilized as a sweetener in processed foods, especially in fruit-flavored and fizzy drinks. "Worldwide, sugar-sweetened drink consumption has been implicated in 180,000 deaths a year". Around 300 years ago, individuals only devoured a few pounds of sugar a year, while current estimates advise that average intake in the US is 77-152 pounds a year--equivalent to 24-47 teaspoons a day.
The evidence proposes that people whose food intake of supplementary sugars adds up to at least a quarter of their aggregate daily calories have nearly triple the cardiovascular disease risk of individuals who consume less than 10%. And a daily ingestion of more than 74 g of fructose is linked with a 30% more prominent risk of blood pressure more than 140/90 mm Hg and a 77% amplified risk of blood pressure above 160/100 mm Hg. A high fructose diet has as well been linked to a troublesome blood fat profile, elevated fasting blood insulin levels, and a doubling-up the risk of metabolic syndrome. Some dietary guidelines do incorporate suggestions about daily intake of supplementary sugars, but are not stern enough, nor do they make definite recommendations concerning fructose.

 Naturally-occurring sugars found in fruit and vegetables are not harmful to health. Eating fruit and vegetables is almost certainly beneficial.

Saturday, August 18, 2018

Steroid Hormone Imbalance Leading to Treatment-Resistant Hypertension

Studies carried by Researchers of London, found that the steroid hormone 'aldosterone' makes salt amass in the circulation system. The salt aggregation happens even in patients on sensible eating methodologies, and pushes up pulse regardless of utilization of diuretics and other standard medications.
Two patients in the examination with already resistant hypertension could fall off all medications after a benign aldosterone-causing nodule formation in one adrenal and surgically removed after medical procedure.

Hypertension standouts amongst the most widely recognized and imperative preventable reasons for heart diseases, heart disappointment, stroke and sudden passing. It influences more than 1 billion individuals over the world and records for around 10 million possibly avoidable death for every year.
Most patients can be dealt with successfully with changes in accordance with their way of life and the utilization of consistent prescription. In any case, in upwards of 1 of every 10 patients, circulatory strain can be hard to control and is named 'resistant hypertension'. These patients are at the most astounding danger of stroke and coronary illness in light of the fact that their circulatory strain stays uncontrolled.
There has been an awesome story of utilizing refined current techniques to tackle an old issue - why a few patients have clearly recalcitrant hypertension. The revelation of salt over-burden as the basic reason has empowered us to distinguish the hormone which drives this, and to treat or fix the greater part of the patients.
These outcomes are vital on the grounds that they will change clinical practice over the world and will help enhance the circulatory strain and results of our patients with resistant hypertension.
It is noteworthy when such a large number of advances in prescription rely upon costly advancement, that we have possessed the capacity to return to the utilization of medications created over 50 years prior and demonstrate that for this hard to-treat populace of patients, they work extremely well.
In past work, the group demonstrated that resistant hypertension is controlled much better by the medication spironolactone (a steroid blocker of aldosterone) than by drugs authorized for use in hypertension. Presently they have demonstrated that the prevalence of spironolactone is expected over its capacity to beat the salt overabundance in resistant hypertension.
They likewise found that spironolactone can be substituted, to great impact, by a medication, amiloride, which could be a possibility for patients unfit to endure spironolactone.
The examination originates from the PATHWAY-2 contemplate, some portion of a progression of concentrates intended to grow more powerful methods for treating hypertension. It explored the theory that resistant hypertension was fundamentally caused by an imperfection in taking out salt and water and that the hypertension in these patients would be best treated by extra diuretic treatment to advance salt and water discharge by the kidneys.

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Friday, August 10, 2018

Sudden Cardiac Death Peaks in Athlethes !!

Sudden heart death (SCD) amid practice remains an uncommon, yet destroying event in both youthful and more seasoned competitors. In more youthful people, acquired heart conditions which incline the competitor to deadly arrhythmias are the overwhelming reason, with the exact breakdown of causes shifting by geographic area. This variety likely reflects worldwide inconstancy in hereditary make-up. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is the most widely recognized reason for SCD in the Veneto locale of Italy, and people with ARVC have a five-overlay increment in the danger of SCD with practice than the individuals who don't practice. Since SCD may the principal appearance of the hidden ailment in a generally asymptomatic competitor, Italy has embraced routine screening of every single Italian member in sorted out game to distinguish this, and other acquired sicknesses prone to prompt SCD, with the goal that those influenced can get treatment and be given proper exhortation in regards to sports cooperation, most normally prohibition from aggressive game. Exact conclusion along these lines requires dependable separation of those with hidden illness from those competitors with the progressions of "competitor's heart". Likewise with the left heart, there is noteworthy cover in discoveries of ARVC and those of a competitor's heart prompting a huge clinical test. Impact of Exercise on RV Structure and Function.

Similarly as has been portrayed in the left heart, standard exercise preparing changes the structure and capacity of the correct side of the heart. The discontinuous volume and weight heap of activity brings about expanded right ventricular mass and depression size, and some expansion in divider thickness. The expansion in right ventricular volume influences all parts of the ventricle including the inflow, body and outpouring divides, albeit a few information recommend that the privilege ventricular surge tract (RVOT) redesigns not as much as different areas. Since the volume stack on the left and right heart are the same amid work out, the level of left and right ventricular widening is frequently comparable delivering an adjusted appearance amongst left and right sides. In perseverance competitors, especially those with high preparing volumes, the expansion of the RV can be very stamped and may deliver more noteworthy change in the RV than the left ventricle (LV), perhaps because of the more prominent increment in divider worry of the RV with practice when contrasted with the LV. Accordingly a perseverance competitor with manifestations which could be predictable with ARVC may have highlights of right ventricular expansion on imaging thinks about and a suggestive ECG, in this manner raising the likelihood of this imperative finding. It is likewise important that the level of ECG change reflecting RV rebuilding, for example, in deficient or finish right package branch square (RBBB) seems to mirror the degree of RV renovating to such an extent that those competitors with an entire RBBB have bigger RV volumes than those with inadequate RBBB (IRBBB) and the littlest RV volumes are found in those with no type of RBBB. The test is to isolate those with illness from those with a competitor's heart, especially in the zones where discoveries cover.

Friday, July 13, 2018

Association between vitamin D Deficiency and risk factors in women aged 50 Or Plus

Results of studies carried out showed a strong relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. The Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition when there is heightened risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes and it is estimated to affect approximately 50% of the female population above the age of 50 developed countries.
Around 57.8% of the women having MetS were analyzed with vitamin D insufficiency (20-29 nanograms per milliliter of blood) or deficiency (less than 20 ng/ml) and about 39.8% of them with sufficient vitamin D (30 ng/ml or more).

To prove the indication whether or not the patient has MetS, typical parameters for MetS diagnosis were adopted: waist circumference above 88 cm, high blood sugar (fasting glucose above 100 mg/dL), high blood pressure (above 130/85 mmHg), and abnormal levels of triglycerides (above 150 mg/dL) and cholesterol (HDL below 50 mg/dL). if three or more of these criteria were established then the patient was considered as diagnosed with MetS.

Researches done earlier showed the existence of several mechanisms that may explain the effect of vitamin D in contribution to MetS. The best possible explanation for the association between vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in women is that vitamin D influences insulin secretion and sensitivity, which play a major role in MetS.

Insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells expressed the vitamin D receptor and in peripheral target tissues such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Vitamin D deficiency can compromise the capacity of beta cells to convert proinsulin to insulin

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